Purpose. Aerosolized cyclosporine (aCsA) has proven to be an effective therapy for refractory acute and chronic rejection in lung transplant (LTx) patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the lung deposition and systemic absorption of aCsA after aerosolized cyclosporine administration in LTx patients in the immediate postoperative period.
Methods. Cyclosporine (CsA) was administered intravenously (1.0 mg/kg) to eight LTx patients, and multiple blood samples were collected over 24 h. At least 24 h later, aCsA (300 mg in propylene glycol) was administered to the same patients using nebulization and multiple blood samples were obtained again. Five patients had an additional inhalational gamma scintigraphy study with aCsA and 99MTc-labeled albumin to measure drug deposition.
Results. Peak blood concentrations of CsA after aerosol administration ranged from 119-402 ng/ml, and concentrations at 24 h ranged from 9-48 ng/ml. The rate of decline in drug concentration in blood in the apparent elimination phase was notably slower after administration of aCsA than after IV infusion. Terminal disposition half life (t1/2 λz) values ranged from 4.1-9.9 h (mean 6.5 h) following IV administration and from 23.1 to 65.2 h (mean 40.7 h) following pulmonary administration, suggesting that drug absorption occurred throughout the 24-h sampling period following pulmonary administration. Deconvolution analysis indicated biphasic absorption of CsA from the lung in all patients, characterized by rapid initial absorption (absorption half-life 0.73 ± 0.38 h) over the first 4 to 6 h followed by slower, sustained absorption throughout the remainder of the sampling period (absorption half-life 16.2 ± 13.2 h). The absolute bioavailability of CsA after aerosol administration ranged from 5.4-11.2% (mean 8.2%) of the dose placed in the nebulizer. The total dose delivered to the lung estimated from scintigraphy ranged from 17.8-39.3 mg, and was in approximate agreement with the amount of drug absorbed, estimated using deconvolution. Essentially all drug deposited in the lungs was systemically absorbed.
Conclusions. This study documents that cyclosporine can be effectively delivered by aerosolization to the lung of transplant patients in the early postoperative period. Part of the cyclosporine deposited in the lung is absorbed rapidly into systemic circulation and a portion is absorbed slowly but completely over a prolonged period.
To access the full text, please Sign in
If you have institutional access, please click here