1. Genentech Research and Early Development
C. Andrew Boswell
Themed Issue: ADME of Therapeutic Proteins
Monoclonal antibodies have provided many validated and potential new therapeutic candidates for various diseases encompassing the realms of neurology, ophthalmology, immunology, and especially oncology. The mechanism of action for these biological molecules typically involves specific binding to a soluble ligand or cell surface protein in order to block or alter a molecular pathway, induce a desired cellular response, or deplete a target cell. Many antigens reside within the interstitial space, the fluid-filled compartment that lies between the outer endothelial vessel wall and the plasma membranes of cells. This mini-review examines the concepts relevant to the kinetics and behavior of antibodies within the interstitium with a special emphasis on radiometric measurement of quantitative pharmacology. Molecular probes are discussed to outline chemical techniques, selection criteria, data interpretation, and relevance to the study of antibody pharmacokinetics. The importance of studying the tissue uptake of antibodies at a compartmental level is highlighted, including a brief overview of receptor occupancy and its interpretation in radiotracer studies. Experimental methods for measuring the spatial composition of tissues are examined in terms of relative vascular, interstitial, and cellular volumes using solid tumors as a representative example. Experimental methods and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling are introduced as distinct approaches to distinguish between free and bound fractions of interstitial antibody. Overall, the review outlines the available methods for pharmacokinetic measurements of antibodies and physiological measurements of the compartments that they occupy, while emphasizing that such approaches may not fully capture the complexities of dynamic, heterogeneous tumors and other tissues.